# Mercator Projection

For most geometric operations, GeoDesk expects coordinates in Mercator Projection. OpenStreetMap and many other geospatial datasets use WGS-84, with coordinates expressed as degrees longitude and latitude. GeoDesk’s `Coordinate`

, `Box`

and `Feature`

objects allow you to use both coordinate systems interchangeably, but if you work with Shapely geometries (which are unitless and hence projection-agnostic), you may need to explicitly convert between them.

If you are reading a shapefile with the outlines of census districts, and you want to find all streets within each district using GeoDesk, you will first need to convert them `to_mercator()`

.

Likewise, if you obtained the outline of a lake from a GOL, then applied a buffer using Shapely, and now need to export the resulting geometry to another GIS tool (which expects WGS-84), you’ll need to convert its coordinates with `from_mercator()`

.

## Converting from WGS-84 to Mercator

### geodesk.to_mercator(*geom_or_units*, lat=None, y=None)

### Geometry

For a `Geometry`

object in WGS-84 (degrees longitude and latitude), returns a new `Geometry`

with Mercator-projected coordinates:

```
>>> to_mercator(LineString([(-110,37),(-109,38)]))
<LINESTRING (-1312351118 475753226, -1300420653 490791663)>
```

### Coordinate sequence

For a sequence of coordinate values, returns a sequence of `Coordinate`

objects. Coordinate values can be specified as `(lon,lat)`

tuples or as a flat sequence. To make the coordinate order explict, pass the sequence as the keyword argument `lonlat`

or `latlon`

:

```
# Coordinates as (lon, lat) tuples
>>> to_mercator([(-110,37),(-109,38)])
[(-1312351118, 475753226), (-1300420653, 490791663)]
# Coordinates as flat sequence (lon before lat)
>>> to_mercator([-110, 37, -109, 38])
[(-1312351118, 475753226), (-1300420653, 490791663)]
# Use lat/lon order instead
>>> to_mercator(latlon=[(37, -110),(38, -109)])
[(-1312351118, 475753226), (-1300420653, 490791663)]
```

### Length

To convert a length value to its equivalent Mercator units, specify it using a length unit along with a latitude value that determines the scale (as `lat`

for degrees or `y`

as a Mercator-projected equivalent).

The following are valid length units:

`meters`

(`m`

)`feet`

(`ft`

)`yards`

(`yd`

)`kilometers`

(`km`

)`miles`

(`mi`

)

```
# 300 feet as Mercator units
>>> to_mercator(feet=300, lat=38) # at 38 degrees latitude
12436
>>> to_mercator(feet=300, lat=65) # at 65 degrees latitude
23189
```

## Converting from Mercator to WGS-84

### geodesk.from_mercator(*geom_or_length*, units='meters', lat=None, y=None)

### Geometry

For a `Geometry`

object in Mercator projection, returns a new `Geometry`

with coordinates in WGS-84 (degrees longitude and latitude).

### Length

To convert a distance in Mercator units to meters (or other units), its length value to its equivalent Mercator units, specify it using a length unit along with a latitude value that determines the scale (as `lat`

for degrees or `y`

as a Mercator-projected equivalent).

The following are valid length units:

`meters`

(`m`

)`feet`

(`ft`

)`yards`

(`yd`

)`kilometers`

(`km`

)`miles`

(`mi`

)